The use of tallow or lard to lubricate rifles was the spark that started the Indian Mutiny of 1857 . To load the new Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle , the sepoys had to bite the cartridge open. It was believed that the paper cartridges that were standard issue with the rifle were greased with lard (pork fat), which was regarded as unclean by Muslims , or tallow (cow fat), which is incompatible with Hindu dietary laws . Tallow, along with beeswax , was also used in the lubricant for American Civil War ammunition used in the Springfield rifled musket . A combination of mutton tallow, paraffin wax and beeswax is still used as a patch or projectile lubricant in present-day black powder arms.
A Guide to Architectural Research at the New-York Historical Society
The purpose of this guide is to introduce the researcher to the printed architectural resources, specifically those relating to New York City, available in the reading room of the Patricia D. Klingenstein Library and at local libraries and city agencies. Please note that the Library's architectural drawings collections are housed with the Department of Print, Photograph and Architectural Collections (x228 or 273), and that architects' papers are housed in the Manuscript Department (x265). For information on those collections, see department finding aids or contact those departments directly.
The following books can help you identify specific architects, buildings, neighborhoods and styles. They may be used as a first step in your research, before going to the Library's catalogs (refer to the Catalogs section of this guide for more information); as a complement to research already in progress; or, as an end in themselves, to answer a specific question or verify a fact. Please ask a librarian to direct you to these books.
Architects and their Commissions